Aquitaine

Extracts data of Aquitaine from the OpenstreetMaps project for free

Main files

  • [aquitaine.pbf] - for osm2pgsql, Osmium, Osmosis, imposm, mkgmap, and others. This file was last modified -02 hours ago and contains all OSM data up to May 26 2024 17:27:58. File size: 223.61MB; MD5 sum: f3cd546ceeca59f6b59ad44937aa6836.

Additional Files

Prepared geodata of Aquitaine in the SHP format

You are getting:

  • Fresh geo data from the Openstreetmap project in ESRI Shape format
  • If necessary, we can provide data in the following formats: GeoPackage, GeoJSON, CSV, TAB
  • Ready-made project for the QGIS 3 mapping program
  • Styles for all layers
  • 150+ icons

Sample of map

 

 

Aquitaine map layers

Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • religion — religion field value
  • amenity — amenity field value
  • landuse — landuse field value
  • leisure — leisure field value
  • sport — sport field value
  • type — type field value
  • way — Geometry
Amenity (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • religion — religion field value
  • amenity — amenity field value
  • landuse — landuse field value
  • leisure — leisure field value
  • sport — sport field value
  • type — type field value
  • way — Geometry
Amenity (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • barrier — barrier field value
  • way — Geometry
Barriers (lines)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • admin_level - Grade of administrative level
  • way — Geometry
Boundary (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • admin_level - Grade of administrative level
  • way — Geometry
Boundary (lines)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • building — building field value
  • b_level — building:levels field value
  • a_numb — addr:housenumber field value
  • way — Geometry
Building
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • building — building field value
  • b_level — building:levels field value
  • a_numb — addr:housenumber field value
  • way — Geometry
Buildings (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • natural — Natural field value
  • landuse — Landuse field value
  • wood — Wood field is not null
  • leisure — Leisure field value
  • way — Geometry
Surfaces and land use
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • leisure — leisure field value
  • way — Geometry
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • leisure — leisure field value
  • way — Geometry
Leisure (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • man_made — man_made field valu
  • tower_type — tower:type field value
  • way — Geometry
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • natural — natural field value
  • way — Geometry
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • AMENITY — AMENITY field value
  • way — Geometry
Parking (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • AMENITY — AMENITY field value
  • way — Geometry
Parking (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • place — place field value
  • official_s — official_status field value
  • POPULATION — POPULATION field value
  • way — Geometry
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • place — place field value
  • official_s — official_status field value
  • POPULATION — POPULATION field value
  • is_capital — is_capital field value
  • admin_level — Administrative grade value
  • capital — capital field value
  • way — Geometry
Places (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • POWER — POWER field value
  • VOLTAGE — VOLTAGE field value
  • way — Geometry
Power lines
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • POWER — POWER field value
  • VOLTAGE — VOLTAGE field value
  • way — Geometry
Power line towers
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • RAILWAY — RAILWAY field value
  • way — Geometry
Railway platforms
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • RAILWAY — RAILWAY field value
  • traction — traction field value
  • service — service field value
  • BRIDGE — BRIDGE field value
  • TUNNEL — TUNNEL field value
  • way — Geometry
Railways
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • RAILWAY — RAILWAY field value
  • public_transport — public_transport field value
  • tram — tram field value
  • station — station field value
  • way — Geometry
Railways (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • religion — religion field value
  • way — Geometry
Religion (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • religion — religion field value
  • way — Geometry
Religion (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • ref — ref field value
  • HIGHWAY — HIGHWAY field value
  • way — Geometry
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • ref — ref field value
  • HIGHWAY — HIGHWAY field value
  • cycle — cycle field value
  • horse — horse field value
  • foot — foot field value
  • lanes — lanes field value
  • toll — toll field value
  • width — width field value
  • way — Geometry
Roads
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • HIGHWAY — HIGHWAY field value
  • railway — railway field value
  • way — Geometry
Road infrastructure
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • shop — shop field value
  • way — Geometry
Shop (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • shop — shop field value
  • way — Geometry
Shops (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • sport — sport field value
  • way — Geometry
Sport (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • sport — sport field value
  • way — Geometry
Sport (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • TOURISM — TOURISM field value
  • information — information field value
  • historic — historic field value
  • way — Geometry
Tourism (areas)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • TOURISM — TOURISM field value
  • information — information field value
  • historic — historic field value
  • way — Geometry
Tourism (points)
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • ROUTE — ROUTE field value
  • REF — REF field value
  • OPERATOR — OPERATOR field value
  • way — Geometry
Routes
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • WATERWAY — WATERWAY field value
  • way — Geometry
Streams and ditches
Fields of layer:
  • osm_id — ID in OSM base
  • name — Local name
  • name_en — Name in English
  • natural — Natural field value
  • landuse — Landuse field value
  • water — Water field is not null
  • waterway — Waterway field value
  • way — Geometry
Lakes, swamps and large rivers
Fields of layer:
  • id — Local ID
Coastline
Fields of layer:
  • id — Local ID
Land border
Fields of layer:
  • id — Local ID
Ocean border

Legend of map of Aquitaine and sample project

Statistics on objects in the Aquitaine

NameTypeOSM TagCount
Countrieslinesadmin_level = '2'89
Administrative level 3linesadmin_level = '3'8
Administrative level 4linesadmin_level = '4'592
Administrative level 6linesadmin_level = '6'572
Administrative level 8linesadmin_level = '8'11399
Administrative level 9linesadmin_level = '9'226
Administrative level 10linesadmin_level = '10'161
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Administrative level 6polygonsadmin_level = '6'40
Administrative level 8polygonsadmin_level = '8'2285
Administrative level 9polygonsadmin_level = '9'102
Administrative level 10polygonsadmin_level = '10'52
Placespolygonsplace = 'city' / place = 'town' / place = 'village' / place = 'hamlet' / place = 'locality' / place = 'suburb' / place = 'island' / place = 'farm' / place = 'isolated_dwelling'299
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Villagepolygonsplace = 'village'10
Hamletpolygonsplace = 'hamlet'149
Localitypolygonsplace = 'locality'7
Suburbpolygonsplace = 'suburb'3
Islandpolygonsplace = 'island'36
Farmpolygonsplace = 'farm'11
Isolated dwellingpolygonsplace = 'isolated_dwelling'83
Region or countrypolygonsplace = 'region' / place = 'county'1
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Buildingpointsbuilding is not ''381
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Buildingpolygonsbuilding is not ''3417951
Dominantspolygonsbuilding = 'church' / building = 'government' / building = 'cathedral' / building = 'public' / building = 'hospital' / building = 'train_station' / building = 'chapel' / building = 'college' / building = 'university'3654
Schools and kindergartenspolygonsbuilding = 'school' / building = 'kindergarten'1937
Under constructionpolygonsbuilding = 'construction'239
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
bicycle parkingpointsamenity = 'bicycle_parking'5727
policepointsamenity = 'police'198
fire stationpointsamenity = 'fire_station'10
post boxpointsamenity = 'post_box'2771
post officepointsamenity = 'post_office'1026
telephonepointsamenity = 'telephone'19
librarypointsamenity = 'library'294
townhallpointsamenity = 'townhall'707
courthousepointsamenity = 'courthouse'11
embassypointsamenity = 'embassy' / office = 'diplomatic'16
community centrepointsamenity = 'community_centre'399
nursing homepointsamenity = 'nursing_home'1
arts centrepointsamenity = 'arts_centre'73
cemeterypointsamenity = 'grave_yard' / landuse = 'cemetery'38
marketplacepointsamenity = 'marketplace'172
recyclingpointsamenity = 'recycling'5648
universitypointsamenity = 'university'24
schoolpointsamenity = 'school'1062
kindergartenpointsamenity = 'kindergarten'122
collegepointsamenity = 'college'64
pharmacypointsamenity = 'pharmacy'884
hospitalpointsamenity = 'hospital'19
clinicpointsamenity = 'clinic'41
doctorspointsamenity = 'doctors'686
dentistpointsamenity = 'dentist'201
veterinarypointsamenity = 'veterinary'151
theatrepointsamenity = 'theatre'104
nightclubpointsamenity = 'nightclub'62
cinemapointsamenity = 'cinema'73
swimming poolpointsamenity = 'swimming_pool' / leisure = 'swimming_pool' / sport = 'swimming' / leisure = 'water_park'4799
restaurantpointsamenity = 'restaurant'4565
fast foodpointsamenity = 'fast_food'1152
cafepointsamenity = 'cafe'612
pubpointsamenity = 'pub'215
bar, biergartenpointsamenity = 'bar' / amenity = 'biergarten'852
food courtpointsamenity = 'food_court'6
shelterpointsamenity = 'shelter'776
car rentalpointsamenity = 'car_rental'59
car washpointsamenity = 'car_wash'250
car sharingpointsamenity = 'car_sharing'36
bicycle rentalpointsamenity = 'bicycle_rental'314
bankpointsamenity = 'bank'912
atmpointsamenity = 'atm'730
toiletspointsamenity = 'toilets'1692
benchpointsamenity = 'bench'13272
drinking waterpointsamenity = 'drinking_water'1591
fuelpointsamenity = 'fuel'521
bus stationpoints/polygonsamenity = 'bus_station'36
taxipoints/polygonsamenity = 'taxi'53
ferry terminalpoints/polygonsamenity = 'ferry_terminal'18
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Christian churchespointsamenity = 'place_of_worship' + religion = 'christian'45
Synagoguepointsamenity = 'place_of_worship' + religion = 'jewish'1
Mosquepointsamenity = 'place_of_worship' + religion = 'muslim'5
Buddhist templepointsamenity = 'place_of_worship' + religion = 'buddhist'7
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
fishingpointsleisure = 'fishing'54
playgroundpoints/polygonsleisure = 'playground'773
sports centrepoints/polygonsleisure = 'sports_centre'208
stadiumpoints/polygonsleisure = 'stadium'2
trackpointsleisure = 'track'19
marinapointsleisure = 'marina'51
slipwaypointsleisure = 'slipway'208
dog parkpointsleisure = 'dog_park'4
golf coursepointsleisure = 'golf_course'12
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
supermarket, generalpointsshop = 'supermarket' / shop = 'general'553
bakerypointsshop = 'bakery'1360
kioskpointsshop = 'kiosk'43
mallpointsshop = 'mall'14
department storepointsshop = 'department_store'17
conveniencepointsshop = 'convenience'831
clothespointsshop = 'clothes'1391
floristpointsshop = 'florist'310
chemistpointsshop = 'chemist'34
bookspointsshop = 'books'186
butcherpointsshop = 'butcher'466
shoespointsshop = 'shoes'214
alcohol, beveragespointsshop = 'alcohol' / shop = 'beverages'300
opticianpointsshop = 'optician'379
jewelrypointsshop = 'jewelry'217
giftpointsshop = 'gift'160
sportspointsshop = 'sports'137
stationerypointsshop = 'stationery'56
outdoorpointsshop = 'outdoor'22
mobile phonepointsshop = 'mobile_phone'77
toyspointsshop = 'toys'70
newsagentpointsshop = 'newsagent'238
greengrocerpointsshop = 'greengrocer'183
beautypointsshop = 'beauty'461
videopointsshop = 'video'1
carpointsshop = 'car'244
bicyclepointsshop = 'bicycle'196
doityourself, hardwarpointsshop = 'doityourself' / shop = 'hardware'223
furniturepointsshop = 'furniture'166
computerpointsshop = 'computer'87
garden centrepointsshop = 'garden_centre'113
hairdresserpointsshop = 'hairdresser'1344
car repairpointsshop = 'car_repair'550
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Bowlingpointssport = '10pin' / sport = 'bowling'2
athleticspointssport = 'athletics'10
basketballpointssport = 'basketball'29
canoepointssport = 'canoe'24
chesspointssport = 'chess'12
cyclingpointssport = 'cycling'5
fitnesspointssport = 'fitness'173
gymnasticspointssport = 'gymnastics'22
hockeypointssport = 'hockey'1
motorpointssport = 'motor'6
shootingpointssport = 'shooting'17
skiingpointssport = 'skiing'6
soccerpointssport = 'soccer'13
swimmingpointssport = 'swimming'45
table tennispointssport = 'table_tennis'202
tennispointssport = 'tennis'30
volleyballpointssport = 'volleyball'8
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
artworkpoints/polygonstourism = 'artwork'935
attractionpoints/polygonstourism = 'attraction'310
camp sitepoints/polygonstourism = 'camp_site'226
caravan sitepoints/polygonstourism = 'caravan_site'129
guest housepoints/polygonstourism = 'guest_house'350
hostelpoints/polygonstourism = 'hostel'93
hotelpointstourism = 'hotel'611
informationpoints/polygonstourism = 'information'7503
motelpoints/polygonstourism = 'motel'9
museumpoints/polygonstourism = 'museum'240
picnic sitepointstourism = 'picnic_site'876
theme parkpoints/polygonstourism = 'theme_park'10
viewpointpointstourism = 'viewpoint'727
zoopoints/polygonstourism = 'zoo'8
chaletpoints/polygonstourism = 'chalet'340
yespointstourism = 'yes'27
alpine hutpointstourism = 'alpine_hut'4
mappointsinformation = 'map'960
boardpointsinformation = 'board'1164
guidepostpointsinformation = 'guidepost'4975
monumentpointshistoric = 'monument'135
memorialpointshistoric = 'memorial'1521
apartmentpointstourism = 'apartment'321
camp pitchpointstourism = 'camp_pitch'2
gallerypointstourism = 'gallery'75
wilderness hutpointstourism = 'wilderness_hut'9
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Coastlineslines1
Water surfacepolygons1
Land boundariespolygons1
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Lakes and large riverspolygonsnatural = 'water' / waterway = 'riverbank'29049
Wetlandpolygonsnatural = 'wetland'950
water' and water notpolygonsnatural = 'water' + water is not 'river' + water is not 'reservoir'10331
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Canallineswaterway = 'canal'1056
Drainlineswaterway = 'drain'1396
Riverlineswaterway = 'river'2575
Streamlineswaterway = 'stream'36551
Otherslineswaterway is not ''53183
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Fencelinesbarrier = 'fence'6315
Walllinesbarrier = 'wall'11745
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Towerpointsman_made = 'tower'306
Cell towerpointsman_made = 'tower' + tower:type = 'communication'57
Water towerpointsman_made = 'water_tower'186
Lookout towerpointsman_made = 'tower' + tower:type = 'observation'38
Lighthousepointsman_made = 'lighthouse'10
Water wellpointsman_made = 'water_well'865
Watermillpointsman_made = 'watermill'41
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Power lineslinespower is not ''6574
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Towers Power linespointspower is not ''54914
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Springpointsnatural = 'spring'935
Peakpointsnatural = 'peak'846
Volcanopoints/polygonsnatural = 'volcano'1
Treepointsnatural = 'tree'117285
Cave entrancepointsnatural = 'cave_entrance'287
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Citypointsplace = 'city'1
Townpointsplace = 'town'58
Villagepointsplace = 'village'2411
Hamletpointsplace = 'hamlet'16647
Hamletpointsplace = 'locality'15975
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Allotmentspolygonslanduse = 'allotments'205
Basinpolygonslanduse = 'basin'2076
Brownfieldpolygonslanduse = 'brownfield'150
Cemeterypolygonslanduse = 'cemetery'2771
Commercialpolygonslanduse = 'commercial'195
Constructionpolygonslanduse = 'construction'738
Farm, farmlandpolygonslanduse = 'farm' / landuse = 'farmland'11128
Farmyardpolygonslanduse = 'farmyard'1877
Forestpolygonslanduse = 'forest' / landuse = 'natural'37003
Garagespolygonslanduse = 'garages'10
Grasspolygonslanduse = 'grass'13562
Greenfieldpolygonslanduse = 'greenfield'147
Industrialpolygonslanduse = 'industrial'1643
Landfillpolygonslanduse = 'landfill'65
Meadowpolygonslanduse = 'meadow'22439
Quarrypolygonslanduse = 'quarry'245
Railwaypolygonslanduse = 'railway'58
Recreation groundpolygonslanduse = 'recreation_ground'197
Reservoirpolygonslanduse = 'reservoir'321
Residentialpolygonslanduse = 'residential'8394
Retailpolygonslanduse = 'retail'527
Salt pondpolygonslanduse = 'salt_pond'2
Village greenpolygonslanduse = 'village_green'1239
Vineyardpolygonslanduse = 'vineyard'11017
Plant nurserypolygonslanduse = 'plant_nursery'95
Educationpolygonslanduse = 'education'73
Parkpolygonsleisure = 'park'1994
Beachpolygonsnatural = 'beach'341
Fellpolygonsnatural = 'fell'8
Grasslandpolygonsnatural = 'grassland'1681
Heathpolygonsnatural = 'heath'2374
Sandpolygonsnatural = 'sand'819
Scrubpolygonsnatural = 'scrub'1758
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Amenitypolygonsamenity is not ''39262
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Leisurepolygonsleisure is not ''67518
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Place of worshippolygonsamenity = 'place_of_worship'3367
Place of worshippolygonsamenity = 'place_of_worship'3367
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Shoppolygonsshop is not ''3362
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Sportpolygonssport is not ''11581
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Tourismpolygonstourism is not ''2432
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
parkingpolygonsamenity = 'parking'19567
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
bus, tram, trolleybuslinesroute = 'bus' / route = 'trolleybus' / route = 'tram' / route = 'share_taxi'8526
trainlinesroute = 'train'612
ferrylinesroute = 'ferry'32
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Platformpolygonsrailway = 'platform'108
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Abandonedlinesrailway = 'abandoned'2818
Constructionlinesrailway = 'construction'2
Narrow gaugelinesrailway = 'narrow_gauge'71
Platformlinesrailway = 'platform'351
Railwaylinesrailway = 'rail' + service is null2426
Service railwaylinesrailway = 'rail' + service is not null2044
tramlinesrailway = 'tram'507
monoraillinesrailway = 'monorail'3
miniaturelinesrailway = 'miniature'18
funicularlinesrailway = 'funicular' / railway = 'rail' + traction = 'funicular'2
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Trunklineshighway = 'trunk' / highway = 'trunk_link'842
Primarylineshighway = 'primary' / highway = 'primary_link'12054
Secondarylineshighway = 'secondary' / highway = 'secondary_link'20583
Tertiarylineshighway = 'tertiary' / highway = 'tertiary_link'26662
Unclassifiedlineshighway = 'unclassified'70531
Residentiallineshighway = 'residential'90455
Servicelineshighway = 'service'178968
Footwaylineshighway = 'footway' / highway = 'path' + foot = 'designated'44482
Constructionlineshighway = 'construction'356
Roadlineshighway = 'road'16
Cyclewaylineshighway = 'cycleway' / highway = 'path' + cycle = 'designated'6684
Living streetlineshighway = 'living_street'2177
Pedestrianlineshighway = 'pedestrian'1818
Stepslineshighway = 'steps'4117
Tracklineshighway = 'track'105908
Bridlewaylineshighway = 'bridleway' / highway = 'path' + horse = 'designated'464
Racewaylineshighway = 'raceway'117
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Crossingpointshighway = 'crossing' / railway = 'level_crossing'58581
Traffic signalspointshighway = 'traffic_signals'3318
Mini roundaboutpointshighway = 'mini_roundabout'909
Stoppointshighway = 'stop'17354
Speed camerapointshighway = 'speed_camera'233
Street lamppointshighway = 'street_lamp'31116
Bus stoppointshighway = 'bus_stop'11255
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
servicespolygonshighway = 'services'14
NameTypeOSM TagCount
squarepolygonsplace = 'square'1207
.$row2[6].
NameTypeOSM TagCount
Stationpointsrailway = 'station'119
Haltpointsrailway = 'halt'32
Tram stoppointsrailway = 'tram_stop' / public_transport = 'stop_position' + tram = 'yes'274
.$row2[6].

 

 

© Copyright 2023 Data/Maps OSM Today and OpenStreetMap Contributors | Map tiles by CartoDB, under CC BY 3.0. Data by OpenStreetMap, under ODbL.